When leaving the room at any time, use the time to review facts on note cards with the students as they are in line or walking in the halls.

When students are working in cooperative groups, use a die to determine which students will answer a question. If it lands on 4, then the number 4 student in each group will give an answer.

An overhead projector is great because it focuses the students' attention, as long as everyone can see, and you never have to have your back turned to the class.

Use popsicle sticks that are numbered for each student in alphabetical order to keep track of participation.

When assigning students to groups, deal out playing cards and have a group for each sign - hearts, diamonds, clubs, and spades.

When making transitions use a song or music, clean up song, line-up song etc.

When the class raises an issue or question that is not relevant to the matter at hand, write those issues on a part of the board labeled "Parking Lot." Let students know that, when time permits, you will address those issues.

Give your students individual dry-erase boards to work problems on instead of having students come up to the board. To check answers, everyone holds their board up to see if they were correct.

Keep a list of activities, problems to solve, and extra credit worksheets on a bulletin board specifically for when students finish a test or seatwork early.

If a student finishes their work before his classmates, have a "Job Jar" for students to draw a job out of that will keep them occupied until the class is ready to move on.

Students who are finished early with their work get to become the 'experts' and help the other students who are not done, but only if they ask for help.

"Word Walls" are an invaluable tool for writing, especially for middle school and reluctant writers.

During independent work, students can volunteer to be 'troubleshooters' - if they place the red apple on their desk, it is a sign that other students can go to those students for help before asking the teacher for help.

For student projects, have each child bring a photo at various stages of the project and have them write a short paragraph on back to explain the picture.

To encourage students to think about what they say before sharing in a discussion, tell students to . . . Decide (what you will say) Hide (or keep your answer) Shine with Pride (give your answer when called on).

For a nice alternative to written feedback from teachers, try responding to students' work by tape-recording comments for students to listen to at school and to take home to share with parents.